1. When I use the plural personal pronoun "we", I am
referring to observations made and data collected by both my wife
2. Among the Iban sexual intercourse is conceptualized as armed
combat, the penis as a "sword", and ejaculation as the
loosening of a spear or the firing of a gun (Sather 1978:343).
3. Glottal stops are rendered by an apostrophe.
4. We did not discover this form of sexual aggression until field
work in 1990 when we collected our first case.
5. There is no term for rape in the dictionary by a missionary
(Forschner 1978) that is labeled as Rungus. However, it in fact
contains lexemes from the neighboring Nulu isoglot (see footnote
12 for a definition of isoglot). This is a rather short dictionary
and contains many errors. There is a dictionary of Kadazan, another
isoglot of the Dusunic language group (Antonissen 1958). Kadazan
is spoken in Penampang about 71 miles on a direct line south of
the Rungus. Kadazan and Rungus are not mutually intelligible. This
dictionary was made by a missionary with long experience in the
country. There is no term for rape in it. The lexeme manabpo' appears,
which is cognate with the Rungus manabpo'. It is translated as "to
catch, to grab, to grasp, to snatch, to lay hold of". There
is no indication of any implication of rape in this word.
6. Flynn in a cross-cultural study of insult behavior found that
in every culture examined "direct or indirect references to
genitals were a common, often the most common, content of insulting
remarks or gestures" (1976:3).
7. I am indebted to Donald E. Brown for his useful comments on
my research and in particular suggesting the importance of inquiring
into the nature of love sickness.
8. The distribution among the Rungus population of myths and other
projective materials is of course of critical importance to determine
the degree to which they are idiosyncratic or represent the projections
of the majority of the population. For example in this instance
of the myth of the dog's penis, I recorded this from a major informant,
but two other informants never heard about it. Unfortunately, we
were unable to investigate the distribution of most such projective
items except superficially.
9. It is important to emphasize in this context of sexual aggression
that it is not males in Truk and the Trobriand Islands but females
who exhibit aggression in coitus. Spiro (1982) provides a psychoanalytic
explanation of this behavior among the Trobriand Islanders.
10. This contrasts markedly with what LeVine discovered among the
Gusii of Kenya. He writes: "Legitimate heterosexual encounters
... are aggressive contests, involving force and pain-inflicting
behavior which under circumstances that are not legitimate could
be termed 'rape'" (LeVine 1959:971).
11. In my dissertation (Appell 1965), I used the term "force"
to refer to the actions of the bride's family to get her to accept
her husband. In reviewing my notes and rereading what I wrote I
find this an inappropriate term as it carries the connotation of
physical force when I actually meant social pressure.
12. By the term "isoglot" I indicate a self-conscious
speech community. That is, it refers to the speech of an ethnic
group, the members of which consider their language or dialect to
be significantly different from that of neighboring communities
and thus have an indigenous name by which to identify it. I coined
this term to avoid the problems involved in the terms "language"
or "dialect", which imply a certain status in linguistic
analysis. The term "isoglot" is neutral in this regard.
But as it reflects the indigenous organization of their linguistic
and ethnic environment, it has greater ethnographic validity (see
G. N. Appell 1968).
13. The weakness of both approaches is that they do not include
procedures for explaining social change. They do not view organization
of society as emergent (see G. N. Appell 1988). While this is an
important issue, we shall not consider its implications further
here. There are, of course, other modes of anthropological explanation:
historical particularism, environmental determinism, sociological
determinism, economic determinism, functionalism, etc. None of these
seem particularly applicable to the purposes of this inquiry.
14. Benedict (1954, orig.1938) first drew attention to the psychological
consequences of discontinuities in cultural conditioning.
15. This is in marked contrast to the Gusii of Kenya where some
wives do express a distaste for coitus, and those that do refuse
to have coitus for up to a week at a time may be beaten by their
husbands (LeVine 1959:970).
16. However, the characteristics claimed by Sanday to produce low
rape societies may only be sufficient conditions rather than necessary
conditions if the preliminary data on the Japanese prove accurate.
It is reported in the Japanese Statistical Yearbook (Statistical
Bureau 1989) that the occurrence of rape is relatively low. Yet
among the Japanese there appears to be a marked differential in
male and female roles.
17. It is interesting to note, however, in contradiction to Sanday
(1986) the Iban male does construct his personhood on being tough
and aggressive, but this still does not result in producing a rape-prone
society, as Sutlive in the introduction to this volume has pointed
18. It might be useful to use the term "biocultural interactionism"
to distinguish this from the usage of interactionism in reference
to the mind-body problem. See Freeman 1990 for his most recent statement
on the interactionism of culture and biology.
19. In developing a theory of population adaptation in which physiological,
psychological, and behavioral impairments are one measure of the
efficiency of the populations's ongoing adaptation processes, I
have referred to this as General Adaptation Theory (see Appell 1986).
This theory must be distinguished from Selye's concept of the General
Adaptation Syndrome (see Selye 1980). Selye's concept does not include
a population and its social assets. General Adaptation Theory, which
also integrates the General Adaptation Syndrome into it, does focus
on a population and its cultural assets that are used in the processes
of coping and adaptation. The resultant health impairments or enhancements
from these processes of coping are the precursors of phylogenetic